As Pembina formally responds to today's Inquiry announcement shortly just sharing our previous correspondence with the Alberta Inquiry. Does not appear any of this information was included in final report pembina.org/p-4207Retweeted by
Remote Sensing and GIS as tools for environmental management
What is Remote Sensing and GIS?
Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about an object or area that you are not physically in contact with. It often describes interpreting and analyzing aerial or satellite-based images, but can also refer to wildlife camera traps, acoustic recorders, weather balloons, and telescopes.
I’m often asked how to age tracks. The tracks in the photo below were made by the same foot of the same person wearing the he same boots, however one was made 3 weeks prior to the photo, and the other was made 30 seconds prior.
A simple trick used to help age a track is to compare the subject track to those just made by the observer, or to tracks of a known age.
Tracks erode or decay over time causing sharp edges and steep slopes to soften. Tracks in different substrates will age differently, as will those exposed to different environmental / weather conditions. Find or make a fresh track, then return daily to observe how it changes with age. Tracks made in wet clay followed by a long stretch of dry weather may age/decay/erode very slowly, but will show other signs of aging such as cracking and litter accumulation. Tracks made in snow may age/decay/erode very quickly depending on photo period, ambient temperature, wind conditions, and the type/condition of the snow itself at the time the track was made.
You can also use environmental events evident in the track, or not evident in the track, to help age it. For example if you know it rained yesterday, and the tracks you see have evidence of being rained in, you can deduce that the tracks were made before it rained.
Tracks made by some animals will age differently than others. Hard footed and heavy animals like a moose for example can make tracks that will last for years because they are capable of leaving an impression in hard and erosion resistant substrates due to their weight and the hardness of their hooves. The tracks of a soft-footed animal of similar size, like a bear for example, are likely to age/decay/erode faster than those of a moose, in the majority of substrates. A light and soft-footed animal like a snowshoe hare may make tracks that age very quickly in many substrate types.
As you can see, as with most aspects of tracking, there are a lot of variables to consider when aging tracks, and the answers sought are often not just in what we can see on the ground, but in our awareness of the environment, our knowledge of local species and region, and in the breadth of experience we bring with us.
It takes some practice, and even so, some studies suggest that the best even a very good tracker can do with reliable consistency is to classify tracks into either fresh, or not fresh.
The footprint above (posted to social media on May 25, 2020) is the footprint of a Snowshoe Hare in snow, photographed on March 24th, 2020, in Elk Island National Park, Alberta, Canada.
The track patterns of snowshoe hares are very recognizable, but most people haven’t looked very closely at the details of a single print, so when they encounter a print without a track-pattern, they may not recognize it. A snowshoe hare’s foot is fully furred making details hard to pick out in most conditions, but that in itself is a detail that can lead you to a correct identification. Though the toes may register as distinct appendages, a palm pad (interdigital or metatarsal) will never register clearly, nor a heel pad with snowshoe hare, so the lack of those feature is a good clue.
Another good clue is the toe arrangement in the tracks. Four toes will register in front and hind, and that is different than most rodents which register four toes in the front tracks, and five in the hind. In addition to the number of toes, take account of the symmetry of the arrangement in an individual print. Note how the toes are loaded all to outside of the foot.
The claws of snowshoe hare are thin, fine, and sharp. They don’t always register, but the first time you see them clearly register in a splayed print, you may doubt for a moment that you are looking at the print of a bunny, and think rather that it might be something more dangerous like a lynx, a wolverine, or a dragon.
Earlier I mentioned that snowshoe hare track patterns are very recognizable, so I’d better explain. Snowshoe hares are very consistent in their use of a bounding gait. I the gait the front feet land first, and then the hind feet swing around on either side, and register ahead of the front feet. The hind feet land simultaneously, side by side.
The most likely animal you may have difficulty distinguishing from snowshoe hare in the Edmonton area would be black-tailed jackrabbit. Jackrabbit are similarly sized and shaped animals, and so they leave similar tracks. Habitat is probably your best clue for distinguishing these two species. Jackrabbits prefer open areas where they can see predators coming and use their powerful speed to escape across open terrain. Snowshoe hare on the other hand like to stay in or near the forest where they can put rose bushes, deadfall and thickets between them and any predators. Another indicator is the frequency of off-set hind feet positioning. Where a snowshoe hare only rarely positions its hind feet off-set to one another, a black-tailed jackrabbit will frequently do so.